Revised March 2019
Opioid-Related Overdose Deaths
In 2017, there were 388 overdose deaths involving opioids in Oklahoma—a rate of 10.2. deaths per 100,000 persons, compared to the national rate of 14.6 deaths per 100,000 persons. The most significant decline occurred among deaths involving prescription opioids, from 444 deaths in 2012 to 251 deaths in 2017. Deaths involving synthetic opioids (mainly fentanyl) have remained steady since 2010 with 102 deaths reported in 2017. Those involving heroin have increased threefold since 2011 from 17 deaths to 61 deaths in 2017 (Figure 1).
Opioid Pain Reliever Prescriptions
In 2017, Oklahoma providers wrote 88.1 opioid prescriptions for every 100 persons (Figure 2)–a 30 percent decline since 2012, when the rate was 127 opioid prescriptions per 100 persons (CDC). The rate of overdose deaths involving opioid prescriptions has also declined from 11.8 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2012, to 6.7 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2017 (Figure 2).
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
NAS or neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) may occur when a pregnant woman uses drugs such as opioids during pregnancy. A recent national study showed a fivefold increase in the incidence of NAS/NOWS between 2004 and 2014, from 1.5 per 1,000 hospital births to 8.0 per 1,000 hospital births. That is one baby born with NAS/NOWS every 15 minutes in the United States. During the same period, hospital costs for NAS/NOWS births increased from $91 million to $563 million, after adjusting for inflation (Figure 3). State specific data on the rate of babies born with NAS/NOWS in Oklahoma is unavailable.
HIV Prevalence and HIV Diagnoses Attributed to Injection Drug Use (IDU)
- U.S. Incidence: In 2016, 9 percent (3,480) of the 39,589 new diagnoses of HIV in the United States were attributed to IDU. Among new cases, 6.3 percent (2,530) were transmitted via IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU among men, and 2.3 percent (950) were transmitted via IDU among women (CDC).
- U.S. Prevalence: In 2016, 991,447 Americans were living with a diagnosed HIV infection—a rate of 306.6 cases per 100,000 persons. Among males, 19.9 percent (150,4661) contracted HIV from IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU while 21 percent (50,154) of females were living with HIV attributed to IDU (CDC).
- State Incidence: Of the new HIV cases in 2016, 293 occurred in Oklahoma. Among males, 16.6 percent of new HIV cases were attributed to IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU. Among females, 13.5 percent of new HIV cases were attributed to IDU (Figure 4) (AIDSVu).
- State Prevalence: In 2015, an estimated 5,774 persons were living with a diagnosed HIV infection in Oklahoma—a rate of 179 cases per 100,000 persons. Of those, 18.6 percent of male cases were attributed to IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU. Among females, 26.3 percent were living with HIV attributed to IDU (AIDSVu).
Hepatitis C (HCV) Prevalence and HCV Diagnoses Attributed to Injection Drug Use1
- U.S. Incidence: In 2016, there were an estimated 41,200 new cases of acute HCV2 (CDC). Among cases reports that contain information about IDU, 68.6 percent indicated use of injection drugs (CDC).
- U.S. Prevalence: An estimated 2.4 million Americans are living with HCV based on 2013-2016 annual averages (CDC).
- State Incidence: In 2016, 32 cases of acute HCV (0.8 cases per 100,000 persons) were reported in Oklahoma. Among those, 62.5 percent reported IDU (CDC).
- State Prevalence: In Oklahoma, there are an estimated 53,900 persons living with Hepatitis C (2013-2016 annual average), a rate of 1,840.0 cases per 100,000 persons (HepVu).
- Not all states collect or report data on the incidence or prevalence of Hepatitis C or on how Hepatitis C is transmitted. When available, the data will be included.
- Actual acute cases estimated to be 13.9 times the number of reported cases in any year.
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New Opioid Overdose Materials for Patients
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