Revised March 2019
Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths
In 2017, there were 344 overdose deaths involving opioids in Oregon—an age-adjusted rate of 8.1 deaths per 100,000 persons, compared to the national rate of 14.6 deaths per 100,000 persons.
Increases were seen in cases related to synthetic opioids other than methadone (mainly fentanyl) or heroin. From 2015 to 2017, deaths involving fentanyl rose from 34 in 85 deaths and those involving heroin grew from 102 to 124. Prescription opioid-involved overdose deaths declined in the same period from 30 to 14 deaths and from 198 to 154 deaths (Figure 1)
Opioid Pain Reliever Prescriptions
Oregon providers wrote 66.1 opioid prescriptions for every 100 persons in 2017 (Figure 2), compared to the average U.S. rate of 58.7 prescriptions. This is the lowest rate in the state since 2006 when data became available (CDC).
In the past decade, there was an overall decline seen in the age-adjusted rate of overdose deaths involving opioid prescriptions. In 2017, there 3.5 deaths per 100,000 persons
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS)
NAS or neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) may occur when a pregnant woman uses drugs such as opioids during pregnancy. A recent national study revealed a fivefold increase in the incidence of NAS/NOWS between 2004 and 2014, from 1.5 cases per 1,000 hospital births to 8.0 cases per 1,000 hospital births. This is the equivalent of one baby born with symptoms of NAS/NOWS every 15 minutes in the United States. During the same period, hospital costs for NAS/NOWS births increased from $91 million to $563 million, after adjusting for inflation (Figure 3).
In Oregon, quarterly rates of NAS/NOWS were reported in 2016. The rates ranged from 7.0 to 5.6 cases per 1,000 hospital births in the last quarter (Oregon Hospital Discharge Data).
HIV Prevalence and HIV Diagnoses Attributed to Injection Drug Use (IDU)
- U.S. Incidence: In 2016, 9 percent (3,480) of the 39,589 new diagnoses of HIV in the United States were attributed to IDU. Among males, 6.3 percent (2,530) of new cases were transmitted via IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU. Among females, 2.3 percent (950) were transmitted via IDU (CDC).
- U.S. Prevalence: In 2016, 991,447 Americans were living with a diagnosed HIV infection—a rate of 306.6 cases per 100,000 persons. Among males, 19.9 percent (150,4661) contracted HIV from IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU while 21 percent (50,154) of females were living with HIV attributed to IDU (CDC).
- State Incidence: Of the new HIV cases in 2016, 221 occurred in Oregon. Among males, 14.9 percent of new HIV cases were attributed to IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU. Among females, 15.4 percent of new HIV cases were attributed to IDU (Figure 4) (AIDSVu).
- State Prevalence: In 2015, an estimated 6,598 persons were living with a diagnosed HIV infection in Oregon—a rate of 193 cases per 100,000 persons. Of those, 18.3 percent of male cases were attributed to IDU or male-to-male contact and IDU. Among females, 26.9 percent were living with HIV attributed to IDU (AIDSVu).
Hepatitis C (HCV) Prevalence and HCV Diagnoses Attributed to Injection Drug Use1
- U.S. Incidence: In 2016, there were an estimated 41,200 new cases of acute HCV2 (CDC). Among case reports that contain information about IDU, 68.6 percent indicated use of injection drugs (CDC).
- U.S. Prevalence: An estimated 2.4 million Americans are living with HCV based on 2013-2016 annual averages (CDC).
- State Incidence: There were approximately 19 new cases of acute HCV (0.5 per 100,000 persons) reported in Oregon in 2016 (CDC).
- State Prevalence: In Oregon, there are an estimated 49,000 persons living with Hepatitis C (2013-2016 annual average), a rate of 1,570 cases per 100,000 persons (HepVu).
- Oregon Health Authority, Reducing Opioid Overdose and Misuse
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Opioid Overdose
- Not all states collect or report data on the incidence or prevalence of Hepatitis C or on how Hepatitis C is transmitted. When available, the data will be included.
- Actual acute cases are estimated to be 13.9 times the number of reported cases in any year.
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